The liver is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity, beneath the diaphragm, and protected by the rib cage. A healthy liver is reddish-brown in color and shaped like a wedge. The liver is one of the largest organs of human body, accounting for approximately 2% – 3% of the body weight.
The liver is a very vascular organ, receiving about one fourth of cardiac output. There are two distinct sources of blood supply to the liver, namely the hepatic artery for the inflow of oxygenated blood and the hepatic portal vein for the inflow of nutrient-rich blood.
The liver consists of two main lobes, a right and a left lobe. Both are made up of many smaller lobules, which are the functional units of the liver. Liver cells secrete bile into numerous tiny ducts, which connect to wider ducts to form the common hepatic duct. The common hepatic duct transports the bile to the gallbladder via cystic duct and duodenum via the common bile duct.